Yashwant Kale General, General Knowledge Leave a Comment


Chandrayaan was India’s first lunar project. It was dispatched by the Indian Space Research Organization in October 2008, and was in service until August 2009. The mission incorporated a lunar orbiter and an impactor. India dispatched the rocket utilizing a PSLV-XL rocket. The mission was a significant help to India’s space program, as India investigated and created it engineering so as to investigate the Moon. The vehicle was effectively embedded into lunar circle on 8 November 2008.

On 14 November 2008, the Moon Impact Probe differentiated from the Chandrayaan orbiter and struck the south shaft in a controlled way, making India the fourth nation to place its banner on the Moon. The test was conducted so underground soil of the moon could be investigated for the vicinity of lunar water ice.

The assessed expense for the moon mission of India was INR 3.86 billion. Over a two-year period, it was expected to overview the lunar surface to create a complete guide of its compound qualities and three-dimensional geology. The polar areas are of unique concern as they may contain ice. The lunar mission conveyed five ISRO payloads and six payloads from other space organizations such as the NASA, the ESA, the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency.

However, the mission ran into some troubles as after a year, the orbiter due to some issues in the sensors and poor heat protection, Chandrayaan quit sending radio signs on 29 August 2009 soon after which, the ISRO formally announced that the mission was over. But still, the Chandrayaan worked for 312 days instead of the planned two years thereby completing 95% of its targets. Among its numerous accomplishments, the best accomplishment was the discovery of water molecules in the lunar soil.

The mission had was launched to fulfil the following targets:

• outline, create, dispatch and circle a space apparatus around the Moon utilizing an Indian-made dispatch vehicle
• for the planning of a three-dimensional map (with high spatial and height determination of 5–10 m) of both the close and far sides of the Moon
• for synthetic and mineralogical mapping of the whole lunar surface at high spatial determination, mapping especially the elements such as magnesium, aluminum, silicon etc.
• to test the effect of a sub-satellite (Moon Impact Probe — MIP) at first glance on the Moon as a fore-runner to future delicate arriving missions
• to discover water-ice on the Moon


The experimental payload had an aggregate mass of 90 kg and contained five Indian instruments and six instruments from different nations.

Indian instruments

TMC or the Terrain Mapping Camera:

The point of this instrument was to totally outline geography of the Moon. The camera lived up to expectations in the obvious district of the electromagnetic range and catches high contrast stereo pictures. The TMC was effectively tried on 29 October 2008.

Hysi or Hyper Spectral Imager-

Again a camera that performed mineralogical mapping in the 400–900 nm band with a ghostly determination of 15 nm and a spatial determination of 80 m.

LLRI or Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument:

Helps in determining the stature of the surface geography by sending beats of infrared laser light towards the lunar surface and identifying the reflected share of that light. It worked constantly and gathered 10 estimations for every second on both the day and night sides of the Moon.


It is a High Energy gamma X Ray spectrometer for estimations with ground determination of 40 km.

MIP or the Moon Impact Probe:

It is an effect test for getting pictures of the lunar surface and a mass spectrometer for measuring the constituents of the lunar air. The Moon Impact Probe effectively crash arrived at the lunar south. It conveyed with it a picture of the Indian flag. India is currently the fourth country to place a flag on the Moon after Japan, Russia and the US.

Instruments from Other Countries

C1xs or X-beam fluorescence spectrometer:

It mapped the richness of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe at the surface with a ground determination of 25 km, and checked sunlight based flux. This payload was jointly developed by U.K, ESA and ISRO.


It is a reflecting Analyser from the ESA that mapped mineral composition.
M3 or the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: It is a payload from Brown University and JPL (funded by NASA) and it is an imaging spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition.


It is a near infrared spectrometer from ESA also for mapping the mineral composition.


From NASA and it is an active Synthetic Aperture Radar system to search for lunar polar ice, or the presence of water.


It is the Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and is useful for mapping the radiation environment around the Moon.

Encouraged by the success of Chandrayaan 1, India has planned a Chandrayaan-2 mission which will be India’s second lunar mission in 2016 or later.

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