Ebola virus outbreak 2014

Yashwant Kale General, General Knowledge Leave a Comment

Ebola virus is named as such because the first cases were accounted near Ebola River in Congo back in mid 70s. The present disease outbreak has largely affected Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria in addition to different countries. There have been other ebola episodes in Africa previously, yet this case gives off an impression of being particularly infectious.


It’s brought on by the infection of Ebola virus, the first cases happened in 1976 in Congo and Sudan. It causes hemorrhagic fever. Death rate is up to 90%.

Types of Ebola Virus

There are five subtypes of Ebola virus:



Ebola-Ivory Coast,



Four subtypes of the virus are found in Africa, apart from Ebola-Reston, which is found in the Philippines. The Ebola-Reston infection is additionally the main subtype that won’t result in disease in people, it just affects animals.


Fever, gum-bleeding, nose-bleeding, red spots on body, blood in stool and frequent throwing up. Similar symptoms are also atypical of intestinal sickness, cholera, typhoid, malaria and so on. Therefore, need to perform ELISA test or other Antigen recognition tests to confirm Ebola. The indications of Ebola can show up between two to 21 days after introductory contact, and incorporate fever, shortcoming, muscle agony, cerebral pain, and sore throat. These side effects are trailed by spewing, loose bowels rash, and poor kidney and liver capacity. Sometimes, a patient can likewise encounter internal and external bleeding. It can affect humans, monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees.

How does Ebola Spread?

It spreads by means of consumption of meat or products of the fruit bats thought to be common hosts of this infection. Infection can also spread from wild creatures like primates, bats, gazelles and porcupines to individuals, from individuals to individuals through blood and bodily fluids contact. Even through physical contact with a dead body. By means of semen/ sex even up to 7 weeks after recuperation. Health specialist and doctors are at an increased risk of the disease whenever they have immediate contact with the body. As indicated by the World Health Organization, you can likewise get the infection by taking care of a debilitated or dead wild creature that has been tainted with it.

Human utilization of wild animals in Africa as bush meat has been often cited as a common mode of infection spread and transmission of illnesses to individuals. Bush meat alludes to wild meat from warm blooded creatures, reptiles, creatures of land and water and fledglings hunted for food in tropical woods.
It doesn’t spread via air unlike influenza but this is unproven. It doesn’t spread via mosquito bite, handling money, use of common swimming pools or other grocery items.
The infection contaminates the liver, devastates the covering of veins, and reasons blood thickening issues and loss of blood. It is not known why some individuals survive Ebola fever while others don’t.
Ebola infection is effortlessly slaughtered by cleanser, blanch, daylight or drying.
A few medicines and vaccines are continuously being tried, however, none are accessible for clinical utilization. WHO had permitted utilization of trial medications to spare lives in a bold move yet it is not effective yet. UNICEF gave supplies worth millions.


There is no treatment at present for Ebola. Patients are generally dehydrated, so they are given oral or intravenous liquid containing electrolytes. Patients must also be isolated. There are presently medications and antibodies being tried, yet most have not been tried in people. Numerous nations have begun obligatory screening arrangement with tourists coming back from the influenced nations being watched for indications and blood tests being carried out of suspected victims.

Ebola Control

Proposed measures for individuals affected with Ebola incorporate the wearing of defensive clothing including covers, gloves, outfits, and goggles. These same measures are prescribed for the individuals who may handle articles tainted by the contaminated individual’s body liquids. The contaminated individual ought to be in boundary detachment from other individuals. All gear, therapeutic waste, patient waste, and surfaces that may have come into contact with body liquids oblige cleansing.
Education and awareness of individuals and the procurement of such protective clothing supplies is essential.

Ebola virus can be killed with high temperature (warming for 30 to 60 minutes at 60 °c or bubbling for 5 minutes). To sterilize surfaces, some lipid solvents, for example, some liquor based items, cleansers, sodium hypochlorite (dye) or calcium hypochlorite (blanching powder), and other suitable disinfectants at fitting fixations can be utilized.

Bush meat, a critical source of protein in the diets of a few Africans, ought to be taken care of  processing such food with suitable defensive garments and must be properly cooked before utilization. Isolating victims and quarantine measures are also viable in diminishing spread of the infection.

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