Indian National Things of Importance
1) National Flag : The National Flag of India is the horizontal tricolor of deep saffron , which is also called as kesaria, present at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom, with all in equal proportion. At the center of the white band, there is a wheel or chakra, which is blue in color, and is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath. Ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3. The Design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947. Its design is that
2) National Emblem : The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Ashoka. The National emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, which is situated at Sarnath.. The Lion Capital was erected in the 3rd century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first delivered his sermons to the world. There are four lions standing back to back, mounted, on an abacus with the frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. The wheel appears at the centre of the abacus having a bull on right and a horse on the left side. While the outlines of the other wheel are on extreme right and left direction. However, The bell-shaped lotus has been discarded. The words Satyameva Jayate is derived from Mundaka Upanishad.
3) National Anthem : The Jana Gana Mana, which is the national Anthem of India, is composed by Rabindranath Tagore, who is popularly known as ‘Guru’. It was officially adopted by the constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24th January, 1950. It was first sung on 27th December, 1911 at the Calcutta session of the INC. The national Anthem has a running time of around 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and the last lines of the stanza, having a playing time approximately 20 seconds, is also usually played on certain occasions. The whole anthem consists of five stanzas.
4) National Song: The national song of India is “Vande Mataram”, originally Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. The National song has an equal status with “Jana Gana Mana”, national Anthem. It was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
5) National Animal: Tiger, which is the National Animal of India, is a symbol of India’s wildlife wealth. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, which is regarded as the national animal, is a striped animal. The combination of grace, strength and agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India.
6) National Bird: The Peacock, having the botanical name of Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. The Peacock holds the Emblematic of qualities such as beauty grace, pride. It is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck.
7) National Sport: Hockey is the national game of India. It is played all across India. Indian Hockey Federation(IHF) was formed on the 7th November, 1925 at Gwalior. In Olympics, India has won the hockey title a maximum of 8 times.
8) National Tree: Banyan Tree is the National Tree of India. This huge tree towers over its neighbors and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees. Banyan Tree is considered as the focal point of village life.
9) National Flower: Lotus, which is botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera, is the national flower of India. Lotus is a sacred flower and occupies a high esteem in the field of art and mythology in ancient India and has been auspicious symbol of Indian culture for a long time.
10) National Fruit: Mango is the national fruit of India. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India.
11) National River: Ganga is the national river of India. It is one of the major rivers in Indian sub-continent and is the most auspicious rivers in the entire country.
12) National Calendar: National Calendar based on Saka Era with worlds “Chaitra Pratipada” as its first month and the first day of a normal year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957 along with Gregorian calendar for the official purposes. Dates of the national calendar, 1 ‘Chaitra’ falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
13) National Days: 15th August, which is Independence Day, 26th January, which is Republic Day, 2nd October, Gandhi Jayanti, which is day of Birth of Mahatma Gandhi.