The Nobel foundation is a private institution which holds the ultimate responsibility of fulfilling Alfred Nobel’s will. The institution ensures a secure financial stand for Nobel Prize. Nobel Foundation has outreached their activities with aim of aspiring the knowledge about Nobel Prize and strengthening the position of the prize. Between 1901 and 2018, 590 Nobel Prize have been awarded.
In year 2018, 12 laureates have been bestowed with this award in field of physics, chemistry, medicine, peace and economic sciences.
Nobel Prize for Physics
In physics the prize was shared among Arthur Ashkin for invention in the field of laser physics. And other half is shared among Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland for inventing the method of generating high-intensity ultra-short optical impulse. There work will bring a revolution in the field of laser physics. There work will help to promote the manufacture for small and precise instruments and further widening their area in industry and medicine.
Nobel Prize for Chemistry
One half of the prize is shared by Frances H. Arnold, who worked in the field of directed evolution of enzymes. Other half is shared jointly among Gorge P. Smith and Sir Gorge P. Winter, who have worked about the phage display of peptides and antibodies. The laureates have shown us the power of evolution and have further expanded their finding in letting us understand the genetic change and selection in the development of proteins which will cure the chemical problems in mankind.
Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine
Nobel in this field has been awarded to James P. Alison and TasukuHonjo for working in the field of cancer therapy. They discovered a cancer therapy which is done by inhibition of negative immune regulation.This discovery has been alandmark in the fight against cancer by using the inhibition brakes on our own immune system.
Nobel Prize for Peace
Laureates made an important and crucial contribution by focusing attention on combating war crimes. Both of these laureates have worked immensely in the field. Denis Mukwege has spent his whole life defending the victims and Nadia Murad is eye witness who can tell us about the abuses done to her and other.Both of them have given a visibility to a less spoken war time sexual violence.
Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences
This year laureates have answered to the most basic of long term sustained and sustainable economic growth. They have given a better insight on the consequences of technical innovations and climate change. William D. Nordhaus have worked on integrating climate change into long term macroeconomic analysis, while Paul M. Romer have worked on integrating technological innovations in long term macro-economic analysis. They have provided a wider scope for understanding the market economy, nature and knowledge.